Your scales and arpeggios are the two most effective targeting tools you will have in building your technique. Be focused, be disciplined, and be creative. You need never be bored, and you should avoid being mindless. Concentrate on at least two of the following areas every day:

1. Intonation: using drone; with all possible doublestops; checking each note against open strings; ultimate listening; stop-and-go
2. Rhythm: using metronome; perfectly even left hand; at different tempos; necklace technique; using the acceleration exercise found on p. 5 of Ivan Galamian’s Contemporary Violin Technique Part I; using Galamian rhythms from Part II; in dotted rhythms
3. Evenness of tone: drawing bow with constant speed, especially at slow tempos; constant sound vs. changing pressure; smooth bow changes; no portatos; sounding point and bow angle
4. Beauty of tone: relaxation; breath; release points in feet, knees, hips, lower back, shoulder blades, neck, shoulders, elbows, right wrist and knuckles; warm vibrato; parallel to bridge; ideal sounding point; drawing the richest sound possible at all speeds; weight vs. pressure; melting and pouring
5. Shifts: release finger before going; wrist release; elbow release; thumb preparation; thumb relaxation; shift from patterned hand to (newly) patterned hand; going up, anticipate next 4th finger position; ghost finger exercise
6. Left hand: bouncing fingers; minimum thumb pressure; high lifts, gentle but quick drops for fast articulation; lighter to go faster; singing fingers for lyric expression; form and position; relaxed knuckles; movable elbow; vibrato through note changes; hand patterns; spacing in air; rapid blocking; balancing to 4th finger for fast balance, finger by finger for slow balance
7. Posture: checking in mirror; shoulders down and back; shoulder blades sliding down back; violin supported easily; alternating thumb and neck holds; head above neck and not forward; space at underarms; space between arms and torso; soft left arm; knees not locked; body balanced over pelvis, legs, and heels; leg base comfortably apart; shifting weight; vibrant body connected with the earth
8. Strokes: practice détaché, martelé, spiccato, up-bow staccato, etc. in different parts of bow, with different rhythms, in order to make them easier in your pieces

Play the 3 Octave Scales (Major, Melodic Minor and Harmonic Minor) without stopping. Speed: quarter note = 120, 140, and 160. Use Galamian turns at the beginning and ending. Start with G and go up chromatically. Finish with a G scale returning to low G string. One bow up, one bow down.
Play the 3 Octave Arpeggios (Flesch sequence). Speed: quarter note = 76, 100, and 120. One bow up, one bow down.
Play 3ds, 6ths, 8vs, and 10ths in 2 octaves scales, straight up and straight down. Speed: in eighth notes; quarter note = 60, 80, and 100. 8 notes per bow.

(The following sections have suggested practice times based on a daily working schedule of four to six hours. If you don’t have that much time, reduce the times accordingly.)

I. 3 OCTAVE SCALES – 30 minutes a day
A. Begin with Galamian, top fingerings first. Plan on learning three scales a week. Practice slowly at first; as the week continues, add the acceleration exercise printed at the beginning of the Galamian 3-octave scales. Memorize each scale fingering as you go. This will get easier as you acquire more scales. The first week you should be able to memorize all three G scales: G major, G melodic minor, and G harmonic minor. The second week you should be able to continue practicing the G scales and memorize the three Ab/G# scales. Continue in this way until you have worked through all scales. Make sure to review your earlier scales periodically, so that you don’t forget them. This program should take you twelve weeks.
B. After 12 weeks you will know all 36 scales. At least once a week, play through all 36 at a moderate tempo, using the Galamian order (i.e., begin with G, and go up by half-step, rather than using the Flesch circle of fifths). On the rest of the days, woodshed three scales (e.g., the three C scales). See suggestions above.

II. 1 Position Scales – 10 minutes a day, rotating block.
Use Galamian fingerings. Use the key signature of one of today’s 3-octave scales. Go up through at least 8th position. Pay particular attention to your left-hand alignment. Put the fingers down cleanly and clearly, without pulling the string sideways. Do not pull the string sideways with each successive finger. Relax your hand; practice slowly, with vibrato, at first, and later build your speed. Notice the finger patterns.

III. Scales on 1 String – 10 minutes a day, rotating block.
A. Use Flesch fingerings. Use the key signature of one of your current 3-octave scales. Make all shifts smooth and effortless. Keep intonation consistent.
B. Use Galamian fingerings. Use the key signature of one of your current 3-octave scales. Alternate fingerings on each day, but spend two days in a row on 1234-1234. As with your 3-octave scales, use the metronome for evenness. Make sure your thumb and 1st finger are never squeezing; release each finger before a shift; keep your wrist soft and relaxed. Let the fingers drop with elasticity and lift with electricity.

IV. 4-Octave Scales – to be added when 3-octave scales are fluent – 10 minutes a day, rotating block. Use Galamian fingerings. Pay particular attention to the beauty of your sound when you are up high; do not put too much arm weight into the string or you will overpower it. Play slow and fast. Work to keep the half-steps close. Keep the shifting curve smooth, and anticipate with your elbow as you go up.

V. Combination Slow-Fast Scales – 10 minutes a day, rotating block.
Without the Galamian turn, play through 3- and 4-octave scales using the rhythmic pattern of quarter, quarter, quarter, sextuplet. Vibrate the quarters. (You will need to play through the scale many times in order to arrive back at the beginning of the scale on the first quarter note again.) This is a good one to do with the metronome. You are working for absolute evenness and rhythmic precision; you are also working on slow vs. fast balance for your hand. If you have any bumpy shifts or poor form, this exercise will highlight them and help you fix them. Remember that in slow balance you balance the hand on each finger in turn; in fast balance (the sextuplet) you balance on the fourth finger.


A. 3 Octave Arpeggios – 15 minutes a day
LEVEL A. Use Flesch, and pick the key that corresponds to your scale of the week. Memorize each arpeggio fingering as you go. Practice slowly at first. Make sure that each and every shift is accurate, smooth, easy and inaudible. Practice the finger patterns using as many doublestops as possible, so that you are practicing many notes at once, rather than one finger at a time. By the end of the week you should be able to play through the entire Flesch sequence for your key. Continue in this way until you have worked through and memorized all arpeggios. This program should take you twelve weeks.
LEVEL B. Use Galamian, starting with top fingerings. (Notice that the sequence is quite different from Flesch.) Memorize as you go. Use different legato bowings each day, slurred and separate. Begin to speed up the arpeggios. Keep the shifts as light as possible, with no tension in the first finger or thumb. Watch your left-hand alignment in the mirror: does your arm come around smoothly? Are there any sudden jerks or interruptions in the flow? Does your left hand look uniform throughout, or does it collapse or change shape at certain points?
LEVEL C. Learn the Galamian bottom fingerings. Memorize and then try to run both Galamian fingerings. Work with rhythms to increase your speed. Use the metronome to ensure that you are even. Try running the arpeggios without allowing your thumb to touch the neck (you may want to prop the violin scroll securely).
LEVEL D. Play through all arpeggios daily. Alternate days between Flesch and the two Galamian sequences. Begin to incorporate spiccato and mixed bowings. Pay particular attention to the arpeggios for the dominant seventh and fully diminished seventh chords.
LEVEL E. Use the acceleration exercise found in Simon Fischer’s Practice, p. 147; use the metronome and work your speed up gradually, making the shifts as smooth and light as possible and all notes even.

B. 2 Octave / 1 Position Arpeggios – 10 minutes a day, rotating block
Use Sevcik Opus 1, Parts I and II, or simply use the Flesch progressions. G starts with open G, Ab and A start with 1st finger, Bb and all others start with 2nd finger. Go up through 8th position. Play as many doublestops as you can so that your fingers learn the patterns. Be careful not to pull the strings sideways (this means you must put the fingers down from a certain angle, especially in the upper positions). Pick up and put down the fingers with speed and clarity; cross strings with equal clarity. Anticipate going around the instrument by bringing your thumb under well in advance of the shift. Watch your left-hand alignment in the mirror. Does your hand contort and shift positions? Notice how this will affect your accuracy and speed.

C. 1 Octave / 1 String Arpeggios – 5 minutes a day, rotating block.
Use Flesch. These are big shifts and must be smooth; do not squeeze with the thumb and 1st finger. Make sure your intonation is consistent.

D. 2 Octave / 1 String Arpeggios – 10 minutes a day, rotating block.
For the advanced player. Use Dounis. Keep your left arm very relaxed so that you will not experience tension in these very high positions. Feel the weight of your whole hand in the upper positions as it falls through your finger into the fingerboard. Try to stretch all your fingers out in advance of the pattern. Pay particular attention to the smoothness of the motion you use getting from low to high positions; release going down and up. Remember to pick up and drop the fingers with speed and clarity.

The Roll/Role of the Thumb

June 4th, 2013 | Posted by BaylaK in Goal 01: Sounds | Goal 03: Rhythmic control | Right Side - (Comments Off)

Straight thumb

A straight thumb results in straight stiff fingers and a relentless, overly tight bow hold. It also prevents the flexing of the wrist.  This lack of small shock absorbers in the wrist and fingers will greatly affect the perfume, nuance and quality of sound, particularly in softer dynamics and classical works such as Mozart, Schubert, and Bach. Carl Flesch famously said that all artistry resides in the small muscles of the bow hand and wrist.

Natural strength and shape of the hand

There is an ideal size and shape for your bow hand which will take advantage of the natural function of your hand and allow a constant conversation between your thumb and fingers.

First make a ring between your thumb and second finger; space the other fingers with whole steps in between. Don’t put your thumb through the bow – find the “captain’s chair” (the little bump on the nut) and bend your thumb as you seat it there.

Galamian believed that the thumb should always be bent at the frog to allow for the maximum space between the thumb and index finger. Put your thumb outside the bow and play at the frog; notice how full the tone is, even though you don’t have much flexibility or control. This is because the space inside your hand is ideal for its strength and therefore your hand can transmit the weight of your arm efficiently. Now replace your thumb in its proper position on the bow, but try to keep the internal space of your hand as large as possible.

The action of the thumb is sideways, not straight up: as the thumb pushes, the third finger answers.

Draw long bows, rolling the bow from the side of the hair to flat hair using only the thumb, not the wrist. Keep an even, good tone.

Thumb counterpressure

Subtracting thumb counterpressure at the frog will allow smoother changes; adding it during downbows when nearing the tip will increase contact and avoid diminuendo. (Exercise)

11.3 pounds is the difference in thumb pressure between frog and tip!


Supination can be done in the middle to lower half of the bow, but is especially valuable at the frog.

To supinate, roll onto your pinkie. The thumb and fingers will bend, the pinkie will curve, the knuckles will relax slightly, and the fingers will be square on the bow. Your index finger will slide toward you, releasing the front of the hand.

Notice the change in the contact point of your thumb – there will be a second dent created.