The following exercises will develop flexibility in the right hand, leading to deeper and more beautiful sonorities and a much greater ability to sustain.
Windshield wipers: hold bow with tip pointing to ceiling; move from elbow only.
Bow climb – vertical & horizontal: try to keep bow stable as you crawl with your fingers.
Thumb & mid-finger roll: downbow and upbow. You can also do this with the bow; try to keep your tone even, while hair goes from flat to side and back.
Pinky push-ups: balance bow horizontally with thumb & pinkie. Hold your forearm with your wrist pointing up so that the movement happens only inside your hand.
Add & subtract fingers:
1} Divide bow in ½ – start upbow; hold each half with thumb and 3 fingers.
Divide bow in 1/3s – hold each 1/3 with thumb and 2 fingers.
Divide bow in 1/4ths – hold each ¼ with thumb and corresponding finger.
Put all fingers on– vacuum each bow – seamless bow changes.
2} Start upbow with thumb and index finger only. Travel ¼ bow; add next finger. Continue to frog. Make sure that all fingers reach out and around the bow, especially the 3rd finger. When you end at the frog, all your fingers should be on the bow a whole step apart, and the third and fourth fingers should be curved. Draw a downbow, subtracting fingers one at a time with each ¼ bow.
Lean deeply onto pinky, even allowing it to go over the bow. Notice how this releases the index finger, which slides towards you as you lean. Notice how your thumb has to bend and its contact point has to change; notice how your fingers are square on the bow; this is called supination. Try supinating at the frog when you want a deep rich sound. As you draw a downbow, come out of supination and begin pronating just above the middle of the bow.
Give of Hand into Bow:
Squishy Spider: Make a tent with your hand upon a flat surface. Release knuckles directly down while keeping wrist and forearm unmoving. Do this pronated as well.
Opposites: Hold the bow with your left hand and put your right hand in its normal place and position.
1} As your left hand pulls to the left, your right arm will pull to the right (your arms are pulling apart). Allow your right knuckles to release; the space inside your hand will flatten, your fingers will curve so the bow moves closer to your palm, and the index finger will slide back towards you. Keep your wrist and forearm unmoving.
2} As your left hand pushes to the right, your right arm will push to the left (your arms are pushing together). Allow your right knuckles to lead; the space inside your hand will enlarge and your fingers and thumb will straighten.
3) Do these actions on the string. You will have to reach your left hand behind the violin (to the left of the neck) in order to hold the tip.
4) Play a sustained downbow and upbow, feeling the string resist the pull of the bow in each direction. With each downbow, allow your knuckles to release fully; with each upbow, lead strongly with your knuckles.
Play a sustained downbow, beginning with fully released knuckles and supination; gradually roll across hand into pronation, straightening fingers and thumb.
Play a sustained upbow, beginning in pronation, with knuckles leading; gradually roll across hand into supination, bending fingers and thumb.
For the smoothest changes at the frog, try to supinate by the middle of the upbow; then simply remain in this position as your arm moves the bow across the frog. Relax your thumb. Strong finger motions on the bow changes will lead to bumps, whips, jerks, and blemishes.
For sustaining in the upper half across the tip, be sure to lean into the thumb; do not think of pressing up with the thumb, but feel its cushioning quality. Extend your fingers into pronation, and keep your wrist supported, not collapsed. It may help to allow your index finger to travel over the bow at first, á la Heifetz; this will help you feel the weight transferring from the inside of your arm into the bow. Then try to get that connection without a big change in your bow hand position.