Mozart Should Not Sound Like Brahms:
Essential to being a fine musician is the ability to produce sounds appropriate to different styles, emotions and composers. The works of Mozart are masterpieces which often benefit from a particular sense of ease and effortlessness. Think sun, bubbles, high energy, celebration, and operatic joy!

Bow Speed:
In general faster bow speeds often convey a lighter, sunnier, more classical quality, while slower bow speeds communicate tragedy, stubbornness, difficulty, and suffering. Faster bow strokes are also useful when intensity and energy are key.
Beginning downbows with the frog angled slightly away from the bridge will help speed the bow and also lighten the frog, avoiding the gritty quality produced by playing near the bridge. Likewise, maintaining the frog away will help the sound production at the tip, because the bow is lighter at the tip and needs the heavier sounding point. (Remember, frog away from the bridge = tip into the bridge.)
The mixed bowing exercises found in Ivan Galamian’s scale book are useful. Familiarize yourself with the different feelings of sticky, resistant, slow bows vs. quick, free, traveling bows. In particular, exercises that alternate quick full bows with very slow bows will be challenging and rewarding.

Special Strokes and Smaller Muscles:
The flexibility of the wrist and fingers is vital to the lighter quality we associate with Mozart. The “Mozart” bowing, 2 slurred and 2 separate done in middle of bow, is used throughout the repertoire.

Always know where you are in the structure of each movement.
Microphrasing at all times is recommended. Be clear about where you are aiming; show high points with both bow and vibrato.
Often crescendos in Mozart are best done by adding bow speed rather than arm weight.
Natural phrasing, up and down with the line just as you do in Bach, will give an organic quality to your playing.
Be aware of sequences; start them at a lesser dynamic and build them so that they make a larger line.

Vibrato which is faster and narrower will work best with your lighter bow, but take care it does not become tense or constricted. Sculpt the rise and fall of harmonic tension in your line with your vibrato.

The best sounds and the longest lines are produced when we can draw the bow in a line, usually quite parallel to the bridge, so that the sounding point remains steady.  However our bow arms work best in circular motions: our shoulders are ball-and-socket joints, and our elbows are hinged to allow the rotation of the forearm. If we are concentrating only on the straight line of the bow, we may inhibit the natural circular motions needed to keep the arm functioning well, and our sound may become stiff and thin.


The first bone of the arm is the shoulder blade.  When we move our elbows, our shoulder blades also move. The movable shoulder blade (and therefore elbow) are an important part of the sound; engaging this area is what it means to “play from the back muscles.” When this area is accessible, our sounds become fuller, warmer, deeper, and louder; chords are also easier, because we have the full weight of the large back muscles. There will be a circular movement of the upper arm, turning inside the ball-and-socket joint. The elbow will also make small circular motions. To encourage this movement, use your left hand to turn the upper portion of your right arm. Notice how the turning results in your right elbow circling down and up. Can you feel the motion of your right elbow all the way back into your right shoulderblade?


The second important area is the forearm itself. Try holding your ulna bone and rotating your radius. You’ll be startled to see the range of motion possible without ever having to move your elbow. The small circular motions of the forearm give smoother bow changes and a more liquid, creamy quality to the sound.  They also help in string crossings, particularly in fast passages. To develop this range of motion, place your right arm on a stand, with your elbow resting just beyond the left side of the stand. Now play Kreutzer #13 in the middle of the bow. Your upper arm will remain still while you cross strings using the forearm motion. This is one of the most useful capacities to develop in your bow arm; it will help you with fast barriolage passages, spiccato, and détaché.


As the forearm rolls, there is a resulting change in the hand balance which we call supination and pronation. The give of the hand into the bow facilitates these tiny adjustments. If we grip the bow too hard or are unable to bend the thumb, little or no forearm rotation is possible. There will be holes at the bow changes. We will not have enough variety of color or dynamic.

Three Systems of Intonation

June 11th, 2013 | Posted by BaylaK in Goal 01: Sounds | Goal 02: Intonation | Practicing - (Comments Off)


This article is a brief summary of the three primary intonation systems used by violinists today, and a suggestion for an ideal compromise tuning for the violin which will facilitate tuning doublestops as well as tuning to other instruments.

Good intonation is both an acoustic reality, with notes “agreeing” (i.e., creating overtones or undertones) with other notes being sounded simultaneously, and a kind of societal compromise, with musicians and audiences growing accustomed to and agreeing upon a certain delineation of pitches. Professional musicians must have finely tuned ears and accurate fingers, so that they can adapt to the intonation system being used by the players with whom they are playing; but true artists must understand functional harmony as well, at times choosing to shade a note up or down to create a certain tension or relaxation.

In my job at Boston University, I therefore find it helpful to teach three of the most used and useful intonation systems: expressive, equal-tempered, and just. My students learn to hear the clear changes in interval sizes and emotional moods when these different systems are employed.

I begin with descriptions of the two older systems still relevant for violinists today.


I. Historical systems of tuning

There are two important sets of musical relationships, both based on the overtone series, which are particularly relevant for the modern violinist.  The first, discovered by the Greek mathematician Pythagoras in around 530 B.C.E., was that certain perfect harmonies were formed by mathematical ratios of frequencies:  the octave, whose ratio is 2:1, the fifth, which is 3:2, and the fourth, which is 4:3. These ratios, and the beautiful pure sonorities which are the audible proof of their perfection, are the basis for typical violin tuning, with “open” fifths, which ring so deliciously.  However, a scale built solely upon these fifths results in some intervals, particularly thirds and sixths, which sound less than pleasing. In 1482 the Spanish theorist Bartolomeo Ramos de Pareja introduced just intonation, a system in which the major third is calculated by the ratio of 5:4, and other intervals are arrived at by using the Pythagorean ratios of the octave, fifth and fourth.  Tuned in this system, 3rds and 6ths will have a “third tone,” an acoustic phenomenon which greatly enhances the pleasure of the listener and the player. Present-day intonation takes advantage of parts of both of these historical tuning systems.[1]

To use either of these systems, listen for the tones beyond or underneath the tones you are playing. Perfect consonances (8ves, 4ths, and 5ths) which are perfectly in tune have no beats; listen for the “wow-wow-wow-wow,” which will change as you approach perfection, and cease when you reach it. 3rds and 6ths which are tuned in just intonation will produce an audible “third tone;” a minor third, for example, will produce the fifth below the top note (C#-E will give an A); a major third will produce its lower note an octave lower (C-E will yield a lower C). Likewise, a major sixth will give a note a fifth below its lower note (E-C# will give an A), and a minor sixth will give a bass note an octave below its top note (E-C will give a lower C).  Learning to play in tune means accessing the overtone series.

Problems: In both of these early systems, intervals do not add up over distance or are not consistently sized. In the Pythagorean system, a high C will not be the same note as a low C, and playing pieces in different keys will be impossible.  Even tuning your violin with perfect open fifths, as most of us were taught to do, will result in a G which is quite flat to your open E.  Playing a C major chord using G-G-C-E will be some kind of disaster, as you will be forced to choose between playing Cs and Gs which do not ring and agree with your G string, OR living with a C which is intolerably too low to make a nice-sounding major third with your E string. As medieval musicians discovered, some compromise must be found.


II. The system most in use today: Equal Temperament – the Ultimate Compromise!

Definition: This system divides the octave into twelve equal half-steps, ideal for keyboards, modulation, and even atonal music.  In fact, the development of this system in the sixteenth century made Western classical music possible.

To use equal temperament, tune your violin using a tuner/drone which can sound all tones.  Tune your open strings directly to the corresponding notes on the tuner.

Problems: This system does not take advantage of the acoustical properties of our instrument. The violin will not ring. The sound will be bland; intervals will seem indistinguishable and lack personality. Sharps will seem low, flats will seem high, and in general intervals will not be expressive enough.  Half-steps will seem lazy, especially at fast tempos. Fifths and fourths will be slightly too small to ring. Major thirds and minor sixths will be slightly too wide to get a third tone, minor thirds and major sixths slightly too narrow. Only the octaves will be pure, and you will most definitely match the piano.


III. Expressive or solo intonation – the String Player’s Secret Weapon!

Definition: This system, which is used primarily by string soloists (especially violinists), takes advantage of the string instrument’s ability to play in the cracks between equal tempered notes. Sharps are raised and flats are lowered to give the maximum expression for each interval.  An expressive half-step will have much more tension than its equal-tempered counterpart. Leading tones will truly and unmistakably lead: in G major, an expressively high F# will be dying to reach its G; in Bb major, an expressively low Bb will be quite close to the open A, resulting in an A which is dying to get to its Bb. Use of this intonation will raise the emotional temperature of music, exaggerating yearning, tension, sadness, etc. It will also heighten the profile of the player, helping him or her to come out of the texture. (This can be why students and even some soloists often end up playing generally sharp, by the way—they are trying to raise sharps, which will help them stand out from the orchestra, but stray into raising everything.) A side benefit is that this particular intonation will more often result in perfect intonation with open strings (for example, a B on the A-string will tune UP to the E string, not down to the D string), giving a generally richer and fuller sonority to the instrument as the sympathetic vibrations of open strings are activated.

To use expressive intonation, slightly raise the third and seventh tones in major scales (often the sixth as well); lower the third tones in minor scales. Slightly exaggerate all accidentals– put sharps higher and flats lower. Tune all notes possible to open strings using pure octaves and fourths and when necessary, combinations of these intervals, i.e., B on A string should be tuned to open E, G to G string, C to G to G string, etc.  Half-steps will be noticeably smaller and whole steps fractionally wider than in equal temperament. This will be particularly helpful in fast passagework, where the ear perceives half-steps differently.

Problems: this system should be used only for solo lines, not when tuning within a vertical or chordal structure. Also, the player must get used to hearing and tuning 3rds and 6ths NOT using just intonation; major 3rds will sound wide and minor 3rds narrow, in comparison to those tuned with the just intonation system. Lastly, the player will not blend as easily in an orchestral section, or even with other players who have been trained using equal temperament.  Expressive intonation is a powerful tool, so use it deliberately and only with discretion!


IV. Bayla Keyes’s Compromise Violin Tuning – recommended for all situations

To tune the violin in a way which will allow you the best of many possible worlds of intonation, purchase a tuner/drone which has a variable A and which sounds all tones.  (I use a Sorinuri Digital Metronome/Tuner #MTR-33.) Tune your A and D strings with the tuner/drone note at A=441; match the A of the drone exactly, then turn the dial to D and match your open D string to the drone D exactly. Tune G with tuner/drone at A=440, but with the dial turned to sound the note G. Tune E with tuner/drone at A=442, but with the dial turned to sound the note E.  (Note: If you don’t have a movable tuner, tune A to 440, tune D to A in a VERY TIGHT fifth, tune G to D in a SLIGHTLY TIGHT fifth, tune E to A in a SLIGHTLY TIGHT fifth.) Your goal is to squeeze your beautiful open fifths a little, but not as much as an equal-tempered piano would.  Note that your open strings will create fifths which are smaller than perfectly open fifths, but in the case of G-D and A-E, wider than those of the equal-tempered piano.


Open Fifths (Pythagorean)     Compromise Tuning (Keyes)  Equal Temperament (Piano)

E: tuner at A = 443                    E: tuner at A = 442                           E: tuner at A = 441

A: tuner at A = 441                   A: tuner at A = 441                            A: tuner at A = 441

D: tuner at A = 440-439         D: tuner at A = 441                            D: tuner at A = 441

G: tuner at A = 439-438         G: tuner at A = 440                           G: tuner at A = 441


Tuned using Open Fifths, the violin’s acoustical properties will be fully apparent; the instrument will ring gloriously. However, the G string (and possibly the D) will be noticeably flat to the piano, and the E will be noticeably sharp; the violinist will be likely to play flat on the bottom of the instrument, and sharp on the top. Furthermore, in C Major, a chord using open G and open E (i.e. G-G-C-E) will sound nasty, because the distances will be too wide. With the cello C string the problem is exacerbated.

Tuned using Equal Temperament, the violin’s open strings will match the piano perfectly, and playing in tune should be considerably easier, all over the instrument. However, the violin’s acoustical properties will be rendered mute; the instrument will sound like a cigar box. It will actually feel harder to produce a sound, because there will be no sympathetic vibrations from your fifths.

With Compromise Tuning, the violin will be able to have some ring from its outer fifths, while preventing the wide and disconcerting spread between G and E; furthermore it will be close enough to the piano pitches corresponding to its open strings to prevent discord when playing with piano. The G string will be SLIGHTLY flat to the piano and the E SLIGHTLY sharp, but not enough to trouble the listener. When playing with cello, the violin E will not be so disconcertingly high to the cello C string.


V. Remembering pitches vs. relating to a pitch environment

A player with consistent intonation can remember pitches, so that an A is an A no matter where on the instrument it is played. Working with a tuner/drone can help you become more exact in your pitch memory by toning the ear as if it were a muscle; if you use the tuner and experiment with both equal temperament and expressive intonation you will find your ear developing greater ability to distinguish ever finer degrees of pitch. From the point of view of reliability, it does not matter which system of intonation you prefer, as long as you are consistent and intentional. Your goal when practicing is to establish steadfast relationships in your own intervals and with your own instrument.

But intonation must always be relative as well.  In rehearsal and performance, when you are playing with other instruments, you MUST listen and adjust. Using equal temperament is advisable in many situations, e.g. orchestral playing, matching the piano or in combination with winds.  However you can expect to be using Pythagorean intervals as well, in order to make perfect ringing fourths and fifths with other musicians. You may find that you have to play certain notes “OUT” of tune, in order to be IN tune with another player. Strive to establish consistent intervals with others, listening to intervals in order to access the extra sonorities available to you through the sympathetic vibrations of perfect octaves, fourths, and fifths, or even the third tones to thirds and sixths created between you and another player. In your own practice, relational tuning by matching perfect intervals with a tuner/drone, as well as whenever you have an applicable open string, will help develop your ear quickly; in rehearsal and performance, you will be matching others instead.  In all cases, your ear is your constant guide and your first responder!


© 2010 Bayla Keyes

[1]  I highly recommend Stuart Isacoff’s wonderful book, Temperament, for an in-depth history of the development of equal temperament.


Expressive intonation when used on the violin takes utmost advantage of the sympathetic vibrations of our open strings. We should as a matter of course tune 4ths, 5ths, and 8vs to our open strings whenever possible; this makes the violin ring beautifully, enriching our sounds and giving us a sense of ease as we play. However, in addition to checking constantly for agreement with open strings, we can go further and begin to hear the relationships between groups of notes.  Basing these groups on 4ths and 5ths will make for consistency in intonation and a more expressive and powerful sound. It will also give us smaller half steps, wider major intervals, and smaller minor intervals; these are all hallmarks of expressive intonation, wherein we intensify and exaggerate functional harmony.

Perfect consonances such as 4ths and 5ths can be divided by their relationship to the open strings into two categories: Dark, building in 4ths up from the G string, and Bright, building in 4ths down from the E string.

Dark Side

G, C, F, Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, all flats

Bright Side

E, B, F#, C#, G#, D#, A#, E#, all sharps

You may have noticed that music in keys such as D, A, E, and G is often easier to make sound; this is because it is naturally using the ring of the open strings contained in the key. You may have conversely noticed more difficulty in works written in flat keys such as Eb, Ab, and Db. Not only do these keys contain fewer of our open strings, they also require us to relate in 4ths to the open G string – the “Dark Side” — which we might prefer to ignore. Even a movement in C Major such as the Bach C Major Fugue will be full of opportunities for mistuning C major chords with the G string, because we will try to tune them “up” to the E string. This is particularly difficult if we tune our fifths perfectly open.


Here is the tuning I recommend instead:

Keyes Compromise Tuning

E: Tuner at A=442

A: Tuner at A=441

D: Tuner at A=441

G: Tuner at A=440


This results in:

Dark Side

G, C, F, Bb, Eb, Ab, Db: Tuner at A=440

Bright Side

E, B, F#, C#, G#, D#, A#: Tuner at A=442

All flats are lowered and all sharps are raised, leading to narrow half steps and widened whole steps in both major and minor scales. In major scales, the 3rd, 6th and 7th steps are high. In harmonic minor scales, the 3rd and 6th steps are low; the 7th is high. The distance from C to C# is greater than that from C to Db. These narrow half steps greatly intensify our emotional expression.



Creating your Gorgeous Tone in Legato

June 10th, 2013 | Posted by BaylaK in Goal 01: Sounds | Right Side - (Comments Off)

Imagination, Visualization, Emotion:

Your sound is your soul. Expose yourself to wonderful violinists so that you may learn what is possible; but — your sound must be uniquely your own voice. What do you hear in your mind’s ear?

Physical Facts:

All sounds will be a mix of bow speed and weight/pressure. Choose your sounding points:

Nearer the bridge = more tension/resistance = more weight = slower bow speed

Farther from the bridge = less resistance = less weight = faster bow speed

The angle of wood to hair also affects clarity and warmth. Although at the frog the hair should be slightly angled, experiment with flatter hair from the middle of the bow to the tip, especially in concertos.

Find strings that suit your violin.

Bow Arm:

Think of your hand, arm and entire body as a set of springs. If anything is locked the sound will be stopped, as water by a dam. Keep all joints open. Avoid strain or forcing.

Carve, caress, slide, pour, sink, curve – never hit or strike the violin!

Execute the bow smile. Land in a flattening curve, never with an abrupt vertical descent. (Airplane exercise)

Flexibility in the bow hand and wrist, facilitated by the proper relaxation of the thumb in combination with the proper hand shape, is essential for beauty.

Left hand:

The relation of the fingers of the left hand to the string can affect the sound greatly. Make sure your tips have a feeling of cushion; in lyric playing, play on the pads, not on the bone. The first joint should flex easily. Do not overpress with the fingers or clench with the thumb. The softness in the tips and first joints will especially help sound and intonation in multiple stops.

Vibrato is a key component to your sound and will help loosen your joints.

The arch shape of the fingers can give clarity and focus to your sound. Flattened fingers are fuzzier and warmer.


Bow Hand Exercises

June 10th, 2013 | Posted by BaylaK in Goal 01: Sounds | Right Side - (Comments Off)

The following exercises will develop flexibility in the right hand, leading to deeper and more beautiful sonorities and a much greater ability to sustain.

Bow only:

Windshield wipers: hold bow with tip pointing to ceiling; move from elbow only.

Bow climb – vertical & horizontal: try to keep bow stable as you crawl with your fingers.

Thumb & mid-finger roll: downbow and upbow. You can also do this with the bow; try to keep your tone even, while hair goes from flat to side and back.

Pinky push-ups: balance bow horizontally with thumb & pinkie. Hold your forearm with your wrist pointing up so that the movement happens only inside your hand.


Add & subtract fingers:

1} Divide bow in ½ – start upbow; hold each half with thumb and 3 fingers.

Divide bow in 1/3s – hold each 1/3 with thumb and 2 fingers.

Divide bow in 1/4ths – hold each ¼ with thumb and corresponding finger.

Put all fingers on– vacuum each bow – seamless bow changes.


2} Start upbow with thumb and index finger only. Travel ¼ bow; add next finger. Continue to frog. Make sure that all fingers reach out and around the bow, especially the 3rd finger. When you end at the frog, all your fingers should be on the bow a whole step apart, and the third and fourth fingers should be curved.  Draw a downbow, subtracting fingers one at a time with each ¼ bow.



Lean deeply onto pinky, even allowing it to go over the bow. Notice how this releases the index finger, which slides towards you as you lean. Notice how your thumb has to bend and its contact point has to change; notice how your fingers are square on the bow; this is called supination. Try supinating at the frog when you want a deep rich sound. As you draw a downbow, come out of supination and begin pronating just above the middle of the bow.



Give of Hand into Bow:

Squishy Spider:  Make a tent with your hand upon a flat surface. Release knuckles directly down while keeping wrist and forearm unmoving.  Do this pronated as well.

Opposites:  Hold the bow with your left hand and put your right hand in its normal place and position.

1} As your left hand pulls to the left, your right arm will pull to the right (your arms are pulling apart). Allow your right knuckles to release; the space inside your hand will flatten, your fingers will curve so the bow moves closer to your palm, and the index finger will slide back towards you. Keep your wrist and forearm unmoving.

2} As your left hand pushes to the right, your right arm will push to the left (your arms are pushing together). Allow your right knuckles to lead; the space inside your hand will enlarge and your fingers and thumb will straighten.

3) Do these actions on the string. You will have to reach your left hand behind the violin (to the left of the neck) in order to hold the tip.

4) Play a sustained downbow and upbow, feeling the string resist the pull of the bow in each direction. With each downbow, allow your knuckles to release fully; with each upbow, lead strongly with your knuckles.



Play a sustained downbow, beginning with fully released knuckles and supination; gradually roll across hand into pronation, straightening fingers and thumb.

Play a sustained upbow, beginning in pronation, with knuckles leading; gradually roll across hand into supination, bending fingers and thumb.

For the smoothest changes at the frog, try to supinate by the middle of the upbow; then simply remain in this position as your arm moves the bow across the frog. Relax your thumb. Strong finger motions on the bow changes will lead to bumps, whips, jerks, and blemishes.

For sustaining in the upper half across the tip, be sure to lean into the thumb; do not think of pressing up with the thumb, but feel its cushioning quality. Extend your fingers into pronation, and keep your wrist supported, not collapsed. It may help to allow your index finger to travel over the bow at first, á la Heifetz; this will help you feel the weight transferring from the inside of your arm into the bow. Then try to get that connection without a big change in your bow hand position.

Left Hand Relaxation: Why Footies Matter

June 10th, 2013 | Posted by BaylaK in Body | Goal 01: Sounds | Goal 05: Ease | Left Side - (Comments Off)

Moving from the Shoulderblade:

The left arm works more easily when movement initiates from the back and shoulderblade, rather than from the small muscles between the shoulder and hand.

EXERCISE: Take the left elbow back behind and away from the body; scoop under the violin and forward.     Keep the inside of the arm soft.  Initiate the motion from the back and shoulderblade.

EXERCISE: Swing up and tap the body of the violin to the left of the G string with all four fingers.

EXERCISE: Remember to stabilize the shoulderblade, keeping it near the spine, so that the left arm does not collapse into the side of the body, but instead maintains a lovely relaxed open space. Notice how the inside of the armpit feels soft.

EXERCISE: Hug a tree while keeping the shoulderblades back. Notice how maintaining your shoulderblades’ positions in relation to the spine helps the arms feel lighter and more relaxed.



At all times we should strive for the easiest, most natural positions when playing the violin. When muscles stream into each other, the electric nerve signals can pass through unimpeded. Avoid breaking the lines of the wrist and arm; keep roundness, curvature, and openness wherever possible.

EXERCISE: Compare playing with the wrist forward and collapsed, backwards, or neutral and straight.

EXERCISE: Pair up and hang each other’s arms, first in the air and then on the violin. Really relax and let  your arm become dead weight. Does it matter if your finger is arched or flat?

Relaxing the hand to get into position:

We need to be able to get the heel of the hand close to the neck of the violin, so that our 3rd and 4th fingers do not overreach, flatten, or strain. In order to hold the all-important octave frame in comfort, our hand must soften and relax.

EXERCISE: Using the right hand to hold the violin perpendicular to the floor, bring it around into position under your chin, allowing the left hand to follow passively. Do the same thing with a pencil, curving your     left fingers and pushing down while your right hand  turns the pencil into violin position.

EXERCISE: Massage the webbing between the fingers. Visualize the tissues opening and melting.

EXERCISE: Start with the hand perpendicular to fingerboard and the palm facing you. Use your right hand to melt the left knuckles in, ironing them gently into the neck of the violin.  Hold the position and notice how relaxed your arm feels. Repeat several times. Now get into that same position only by turning the     arm. Notice the tension in the forearm. Do the fingers move as freely?

With all stretching exercises, your goal is to allow the hand to open – never force, and never overpress. Think of your hand as relaxing apart, with the 1st and 2nd fingers melting back towards the pegs and the 3rd and 4th energetically reaching forward.  I call this “split hand.”

EXERCISE: Dounis Stretchback from 4th Position – place 3 fingers on the E string; gently slide the 1st finger    as far back as is comfortable on the A string. Repeat, leave in place, and then place 2nd finger on A string. Continue with all fingers. Do NOT allow other fingers to move. Do NOT overpress

EXERCISE: Simon Fischer contrary motion; also slide up and down a half step with each finger. Keep your fingernails facing you.

Keeping the fingernails facing you (this is called pronation) will result in easier manipulation of the spaces between your fingers, improving your intonation and solidifying your finger patterns.

EXERCISE: Simon Fischer Fingertip Placement

EXERCISE: Simon Fischer Thumb Spa – relaxing the thumb. Also try resting scroll gently on a stand.


The Footie:

Loosen the 1st joint to broaden the point of contact to aid in the transfer of the weight from the arm.  Do NOT flatten the finger; the 2nd joint should remain higher than the 1st. This is especially important in high positions and while shifting!

Fourth Finger (Left Hand)

June 10th, 2013 | Posted by BaylaK in Goal 01: Sounds | Goal 05: Ease | Left Side - (Comments Off)

Exercises for Strengthening (do just a little each day!)

  • Kreutzer #9 using 2-4 instead of 1-3, every time. Lift and drop cleanly and quickly for maximum articulation. Build speed slowly.
  • Simon Fischer Basics pp. 126-127. You’ll be amazed how quickly your finger gains strength and therefore speed.
  • Sevick Opus 1 Part 4: Numbers 19 and 20. Left-hand pizzicato, with as much 4th finger use as possible.

Exercises for Loosening (be gentle and light!)

  • Practice entire concerto ONLY vibrating on 4th finger. Vibrating makes you connect the finger back into the elbow; thus you are encouraging ONLY the 4th finger to feel its balance and connection.
  • Dounis Artist’s Technique: shifting exercise on pp. 37-40 – the pattern using 123 (4-1-4) – 1234; 423 (1-4-1) -4321.

Do this exercise ppp in both hands at first, so that your shift into  the 4th finger lands softly, lovingly and easily.

  • All the Simon Fischer Basics vibrato exercises are good; pp. 213-226. Especially note Numbers 275, 277, 279, 285, 286, 289, 293, and 299.
  • Place all fingers on string and lightly slide the 4th finger up, keeping the lower fingers still. If you need to help the finger move at first, use the right hand to train it. The more it can separate up from the 3rd finger, the more open the webbing between the fingers will become.

To Do:

  • Keep heel of hand (the fleshy part underneath the fourth finger, on the left side of the palm and hand) as soft as possible, especially while putting pressure on 4th finger.
  • Experiment with where you put the pad of the finger – on my hand, placing the 4th finger with as much flesh lying on the string as possible (ergo, a flat pad and fingertip) automatically softens the heel of my hand; playing on the point, with a strong square shape, hardens it. (You can feel your left hand with your right hand to find out.)
  • Feel the 4th finger going up and over a large soft space (I think cloud) as you put it down for a lyric note. You can shift from each finger in each low position into the 4th finger. Loosen everything and keep the inside of the hand relaxed as you land.
  • Try playing on your right arm with the 4th finger; vibrate, feel the softness of the contact, and feel the connection from the 4th finger all the way up into the elbow.
  • Lift the 1st and 2nd fingers and see if the hand opens up to vibrate more freely.
  • Eventually, see if you can feel the 4th finger all the way back into your freely sliding left shoulder blade!


The Roll/Role of the Thumb

June 4th, 2013 | Posted by BaylaK in Goal 01: Sounds | Goal 03: Rhythmic control | Right Side - (Comments Off)

Straight thumb

A straight thumb results in straight stiff fingers and a relentless, overly tight bow hold. It also prevents the flexing of the wrist.  This lack of small shock absorbers in the wrist and fingers will greatly affect the perfume, nuance and quality of sound, particularly in softer dynamics and classical works such as Mozart, Schubert, and Bach. Carl Flesch famously said that all artistry resides in the small muscles of the bow hand and wrist.

Natural strength and shape of the hand

There is an ideal size and shape for your bow hand which will take advantage of the natural function of your hand and allow a constant conversation between your thumb and fingers.

First make a ring between your thumb and second finger; space the other fingers with whole steps in between. Don’t put your thumb through the bow – find the “captain’s chair” (the little bump on the nut) and bend your thumb as you seat it there.

Galamian believed that the thumb should always be bent at the frog to allow for the maximum space between the thumb and index finger. Put your thumb outside the bow and play at the frog; notice how full the tone is, even though you don’t have much flexibility or control. This is because the space inside your hand is ideal for its strength and therefore your hand can transmit the weight of your arm efficiently. Now replace your thumb in its proper position on the bow, but try to keep the internal space of your hand as large as possible.

The action of the thumb is sideways, not straight up: as the thumb pushes, the third finger answers.

Draw long bows, rolling the bow from the side of the hair to flat hair using only the thumb, not the wrist. Keep an even, good tone.

Thumb counterpressure

Subtracting thumb counterpressure at the frog will allow smoother changes; adding it during downbows when nearing the tip will increase contact and avoid diminuendo. (Exercise)

11.3 pounds is the difference in thumb pressure between frog and tip!


Supination can be done in the middle to lower half of the bow, but is especially valuable at the frog.

To supinate, roll onto your pinkie. The thumb and fingers will bend, the pinkie will curve, the knuckles will relax slightly, and the fingers will be square on the bow. Your index finger will slide toward you, releasing the front of the hand.

Notice the change in the contact point of your thumb – there will be a second dent created.