Position and Alignment
Keep your hand directly above your forearm; do not twist or cock the wrist. Imagine a line runs through your second finger, across the back of your hand and into your forearm; make that line straight.
Relax the heel of your hand to bring the third and fourth fingers closer to the neck. Your fingernails should face you as much as possible; try not to torque the forearm, as this will introduce tension into the forearm..
Find the ideal arch shape (the “C”) for your fingers. The first joint should be below the second. The faster the passage, the more you play on the tips.
For all fast passages and when training the frame, balance your hand on the third and fourth fingers – NOT the first and second! Start by placing the fourth finger on the string; place the others behind it. You should be able to keep all four fingers on the string in the various finger patterns.
Most frequently used:
Whole Step, Whole Step, Half Step
Whole, Half, Whole
Half, Whole, Whole
Whole, Whole, Whole
Half, Augmented Second, Half
Practice chromatically and diatonically. Group fingers in the air.
Move from the base knuckle. Visualize each finger moving as if on a little railroad track. Move backward to a specific point in space.
For clear finger work in slurred passages, practice with high lifts and drops. Then when playing, keep the fingers hovering close to the string as you ascend; have each finger in place before lifting the previous one as you descend. Anticipate string crossings by forming double or multiple stops in advance.
Each finger must be able to lift and drop without affecting other fingers. The hand and wrist must be quiet and still, not tense, but in neutral. No wobbling!
The faster we play, the lighter the fingers should feel. The action is quick but not heavy.
Independence of Fingers
Doublestop exercises are ideal for training the frame. Some examples are Sevcik Opus 1 Part 4, Kourgeouf, and Dounis.
Left hand pizzicato exercises are ideal for training the muscles of the finger in lifting and dropping.